• Minister of State for Ports, Shipping & Waterways (I/C)
  • sagarmala
  • Ficci
International Shipping and Bulk Cargo transportation MARITIME INDIA SUMMIT 2021

Bulk cargo such as coal, iron ore, cement, crude and petroleum products form a major part of India’s EXIM trade commodities. The composition of cargo handled by Indian ports is approximately 37.4 % liquid cargo, 22% coal, 21% containers, 7% iron ore, 2.5% fertilisers and 10% other minor bulk products. As of April 2020, bulk cargo takes the largest share in the cargo handled at Indian ports, contributing ~70 % of the total volume.

Inland Water Transport (IWT) is a fuel efficient, environment friendly and cost-effective mode of transport having potential to supplement the overburdened rail and congested roads. Most of the bulk cargo within India is transported via rail and road as opposed to coastal or inland shipping. For instance, more than 61% of the total thermal coal transported in India is via rail and more than 90% of the rail routes relevant to coal are running at over 100% utilization. India is expected to become the world’s largest coking coal importer by 2025 due to expansion in steel production in the country. This will create tremendous pressure on the already congested railways. Hence, there is a great opportunity to develop both coastal and inland shipping for transporting bulk cargo within the country.

Apart from easing the pressure off the rail system, shifting to coastal shipping has significant gains in terms of cost reductions. The cost of transporting bulk cargo via coastal shipping is INR 0.2 per tonne km as compared to INR 1.2 to 1.4 per tonne km for rail. A modal-mix shift towards coastal shipping will lower operational costs. For instance, the movement between RINL Vizag (coastal Andhra Pradesh) and the auto cluster in Pune (Maharashtra) costs INR ~1,900 per tonne via rail, while the same movement via coastal shipping with rail or road for the last-mile could be INR ~1,400 per tonne, which would save costs between 25 to 30%.


Other than coal and iron ore, liquid cargo is the primary and most valuable bulk product that is moved through international shipping.

The source of the majority of liquid cargo in India is imports. This necessitates the availability of ports with infrastructure essential to handle liquid bulk cargo. Some of the major ports handling liquid bulk cargo are:

  • Mumbai Port: Multi-purpose port that handles all types of cargo including liquid bulk. The port handled traffic of 46.16 MT during 2019-20. The major cargo commodity handled is POL (63 % of the total traffic)
  • Kamarajar Port (Ennore): Built primarily as a coal port, it has developed as a multi cargo port and now has created facilities for handling several types of cargo including liquid bulk and iron ore. The port handled traffic of 23.42 MT during 2019-20 which includes POL and coal among other cargoes.
  • Vishakhapatnam Port: The port has mechanized handling facilities for several bulk commodities including crude oil & POL products, liquid ammonia, phosphoric acid, edible oil, caustic soda and other liquid cargoes. The port handled traffic of 53.54 MMT during the year 2019-20
  • Cochin Port: The cargo handled by the port includes break bulk, container, dry bulk, liquid bulk. The Port handled 23.29 MT during 2018-19. A multi-user liquid terminal was completed in 2018-19 at Puthuveypeen SEZ near Cochin port.
  • Deendayal Port: Deendayal Port has infrastructure for handling different types of cargos including oil jetties for liquid cargo. The port handled 92.41 MMT of traffic during 2019-20. The cargo handled comprises POL and other dry and container cargo.
New Developments

The Sagarmala project has undertaken several new initiatives for liquid bulk cargo infrastructure development. Some of these include:

  • Refurbishment and capacity enhancement of coastal liquid terminal at Cochin port
  • Setting up of liquid cargo handling facilities at Haldia Port
  • Liquid cargo jetty at Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust
  • Development of liquid terminal facilities consisting of single point mooring (SPM) and 2 product jetties at various ports in Gujarat such as Vadinar and Kandla Port and offshore oil terminal
  • Multi-user liquid terminal at Puthuvypeen, Cochin Port
  • Multi-user liquid terminal at Ennore, Tamil Nadu
  • Liquid bulk terminal at Krishnapatnam Port

our partners

Major event partners who are organizing and supporting MIS 2021

  • ficci
  • sagarmala
  • Minister of State for Ports, Shipping & Waterways (I/C)
  • India Maritime Plus
  • India gov.in

Partner Country

  • Green Strategic Partnership
  • MFA TC Denmark

Convention Centre Partner

  • Ari Simulation

Platinum partners

  • APM Terminal
  • csll
  • Essar Port
  • HIMT
  • Infyz
  • indian waterways Authority of india
  • IMC
  • IPA
  • Indian Port Global Chabahar Free Zone
  • JMB Group
  • Nayara Energy
  • Sagarmala
  • SDCL
  • Van Oord

Gold partners

  • Envision
  • Indian Oil Corporation Limited
  • Orrisa Stevedores Ltd

Silver partners

  • allcargologistics
  • MSz
  • s2shipping

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